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These should be linked to user-friendly interfaces and visualization systems Shepard and Harshaw, to facilitate their use by the non-technical population. Forest decision-support tools fall into three major categories: experience-based, empirical historical bioassay [HB] models; e. The emerging consensus is that HB will always be useful in forestry but have limited capabilities relative to changing expectations of such tools, that PS models are needed but that they are often too complex to use in forest management, and that a hybrid of the two - HS models - will be the way of the future.

Messier et al. I mention a selection of the models I am most familiar with as an example of the type of FEM models that I believe are needed now, and will be needed increasingly in the future. The public are generally better able to understand and evaluate forestry through pictorial than through tabular, graphical and two-dimensional map representations.

The scientific basis for the images being presented must be communicated in as clear a format as possible in order to establish confidence in the images. Visualizations should incorporate representations of natural and human-caused risks and uncertainties, and clearly communicate that there are many different possible forest futures.

An important question with respect to forestry models is: can they be used by foresters in developing countries? While it is true that there are knowledge and technology barriers that limit the use of such tools in many parts of the world at present, computers are rapidly becoming omnipresent wherever there is electricity. Computer models can harness knowledge and experience from developed countries at any latitude, and make them available as heuristic, educational and extension tools to countries that presently lack the wherewithal to locally calibrate and use such tools.

It may be some years or decades before foresters in the less developed countries gain the local information needed to make them realistic local tools for prediction, but the day when this will be possible is approaching, and it is time to start to customize this type of tool for this future use. Several forest ecosystem models already exist for tropical forests, and there are many for temperate forests.

Their development should be continued in anticipation of the day that foresters in developing tropical and temperate countries are ready for them.

Bibliographic Information

To respond in a responsible and ethical manner to the challenges posed by an additional three to four billion people, foresters must stop managing forests for timber, or for wildlife, or for water, or for any other single value. They must be managed as ecosystems for multiple values. This does not imply that all forests are managed for all values all the time. Wilderness, ecological, genetic and potable water production reserves and recreational areas will be part of the mosaic of different land-management designations within a forest landscape, but the whole must be managed as an ecosystem.

Forestry that fails to address the human needs of local people, or to respect the processes of local and landscape ecosystems, is unlikely to be sustainable.


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Only when the forest is managed as a system with people and their multiple values respected and incorporated into management, will we reduce conflict in forestry and balance the multiple and competing demands of today's generation against our desire to leave a suitable legacy for the future. Forestry is primarily about people, not ecology, biodiversity, timber or any other single value. The fact that ecology is now the essential biophysical foundation for forestry, and that wildlife, water and biodiversity have become as important in forestry as timber, is because people have recognized their value and have insisted that they become an objective of management.

If foresters are to obtain the social licence to manage the world's forests, they must strive to implement FEM with humans as part of the ecosystems. Many changes are required to achieve success in this vital endeavour. One of them is the synthesis of ecological knowledge, both "traditional" and that derived from "western science", into ecosystem management scenario analysis and visualization tools. Boyce, M. Ecosystem management: applications for sustainable forest and wildlife resources. New Haven, Conn. D'Eon, R.

Continuous Cover Forestry

Ecosystem management of forested landscapes: Directions and implementation. Vancouver, UBC Press. Franklin, J. Ecosystem management: an overview. Boyce, and A. Haney, eds. Alternative silviculture approaches to timber harvesting: variable retention harvesting systems.

Kohm, and J. Franklin, eds.

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Nordin, Annika - Ecophysiological Forest Management - Umeå Plant Science Centre

Creating a forestry for the 21 st century: The science of ecosystem management, pp Washington, D. Spies, T. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example. Kimmins, J. Sustained yield, timber mining, and the concept of ecological rotation: a British Columbian view.

Ecosystem management and landscape ecology: The ultimate focus in forest ecology.

Nordin, Annika - Ecophysiological Forest Management

In Forest ecology. A foundation for sustainable forest management and environmental ethics in forestry, Chap.


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    Lutz, W. The end of world population growth. Nature Messier, C. Modelling tools to assess the sustainability of forest management scenarios. Burton, C. Besides, we would like to start another experiment in the region, which compares the different types of gap-cutting as a tool of continuous cover forestry on forest site, biodiversity and regeneration. We would like to contribute by this research on the establishment of an ecologically sustainable forest management.

    Balaton Limnological Institute.

    Danube Research Institute. Evolutionary Research Institute. Institute of Ecology and Botany. Open-field experiments supporting ecologically sustainable forest management HU Research and Technology Innovation Fund K , - , running project. Coordinator or leader of the project:. Coordinator or leader institution of the project:. Homepage s of the project:.


    • Occupation and Society: The East Anglian Fishermen 1880-1914;
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